Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body;  the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor. Cancer occurs after cells are genetically altered to proliferate rapidly and indefinitely. This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour. The cells which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia , followed by dysplasia then anaplasia , resulting in a malignant phenotype. This malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion to a second site for tumorigenesis. Some cancer cells known as circulating tumor cells acquire the ability to penetrate the walls of lymphatic or blood vessels , after which they are able to circulate through the bloodstream to other sites and tissues in the body.
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Patient information : See related handout on esophageal cancer , written by the authors of this article. Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate, with an estimated 16, new cases and 15, deaths projected in in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common in nonindustrialized countries, and important risk factors include smoking, alcohol use, and achalasia. Adenocarcinoma is the predominant esophageal cancer in developed nations, and important risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity, and smoking. Dysphagia alone or with unintentional weight loss is the most common presenting symptom, although esophageal cancer is often asymptomatic in early stages.
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Boxer Amir Khan says he is spending quality time with his mum Falak as she battles stage 4 pancreatic cancer - but he admits it's 'tough'. Amir Khan has revealed he is spending every evening by his mum's side during her heartbreaking battle with stage 4 pancreatic cancer. The professional boxer, 34, first announced his mum Falak had fallen ill in January and now he has shared how his family are facing a 'tough time'.
By Clare Mccarthy For Mailonline. The Charmed actress, 49, dressed down in a simple camel sweater, black trousers and a blue face covering for the outing. She wore her brunette locks tied back from her face and carried an orange shopping bag with her. The Beverly Hills star completed the casual look with a pair of white Converse trainers. She was accompanied on the day out by her mother Rosa Elizabeth Doherty, with whom she enjoys a close relationship.